THE COOKING AT SEA SERIES
are four enemies of food storage: light, heat, oxygen, and
moisture. There is only one
enemy when it comes to stowage - not enough!
Disasters happen, even to the most organized and careful of people. Ocean sailing is an adventure sport, and as such you need to minimize risk. The same goes for your stowage. Tstowageake time to plan your , assess all risks to your provisions and manage your provisions on passage.
Now we get to the interesting bit, yes, it
is more than possible to run a warm storage
galley on even the longest of ocean passages,
in fact, it is easier than fridges and
freezers, remember there is no supermarket in
the middle of the ocean. You now have
time on your hands to really hone those
culinary skills - in fact it gives you
something to do on a long passage - so eat
First you need to have an understanding of
how long your passage will take, then add 50%
extra on top. This allows for all
contingencies, and unless you are leaving the
boat immediately upon reaching port, any extra
provisions will be consumed in the normal
course of events.
So, what to provision with? Start by
understanding what you normally eat, and what
the rest of your crew normally eats. If
you live on a diet of baked beans, then read
no further, just pop on down to your local
supermarket. However, most of us eat a
fairly varied diet. This will normally
include, meats, fish, cheese, different
pastas, eggs, bread, cake, crisps etc...
There is no reason to suppose that this diet
Cured meat products, such as Iberico ham,
cured sausages etc... are a must for any
meat eater with a warm storage galley.
They can be sliced, diced, minced...
just about anything. Added to stew,
casseroles, chilli, lentils, sandwiches,
salads (we'll get onto salad
substitutes in a minute). One pot
stews are as simple as it gets, yet provide a
fantastic, tasty and nourishing meal.
Fruits (soft fruits excluded) and vegetables
DO NOT need to be chilled, they should,
even in a boat with refrigeration, be warm
Hard cheeses come to no harm in a warm
storage galley, varieties such as cheddar can
be wrapped in parchment paper, and should any
mold occur, simply cut it off, the rest of the
cheese will be fine.
- Try to keep food in sealed bags or containers. (This does not apply to fruits and vegetables.)
- Don't store food or drinks near cleaning products or other chemicals (battery acid does not make a good vinaigrette).
- Only re-use plastic water bottles if they’re not damaged and you can clean them.
- Vegetables are not the united nations, store onions, potatoes etc... separately. (more on vegetables)
The purpose of food storage is to get us
through any passage well fed, and to keep us
healthy for whatever is thrown at us.
Below are many tips for storing food, but
what do you really want to store? What
length of time do you intend to keep your warm
storage items, and how do you get to eat fresh
food everyday on a long passage without the
use of a fridge or freezer.
The Good News
In some respects, the challenges you will face are nothing compared to the benefits. No more worrying about how much power the fridge takes, or what is lurking in the back of it. With a little thought and knowledge there is no reason why you can't run a warm storage galley in hot and humid climates.
You need to keep food as fresh as possible for as long as possible. Thinking a little ahead, knowing what you have onboard and using it in a timely manner is mainly all that is needed to succeed. If you look outside and it's snowing, perhaps skip to another page altogether.
Safe food storage
Storing dry food, tins, jars and drinks
Many types of food don't need to be kept in
the fridge to keep them safe to eat, for
example dry foods such as rice, pasta and
flour, many types of drinks, tinned foods,
and unopened jars. But it's still important
to take care how you store them. Most
fruits and vegetables can be kept for long
periods of time without refrigeration.
If you like milk, try using dried milk, only making up what you need for the day. Keep in a vented, lidded jar (an old honey pot is perfect for this). Unlike with a lot of foods it it pretty obvious when milk has turned. Of course the obvious solution is UHT milk, but if you are short handed, the opened container of milk might go off before you have managed to finish it. If you are thinking of using raw milk, maybe think again. If your milk is getting close to its use-by date, you can add it to rice, a sprinkle of cinnamon and some sugar and bake in the oven to make rice pudding for dessert.
Eggs can still be used a few days after their use-by date, you just need to check their freshness; place the egg into a glass of water and if the egg stays flat at the bottom, it's fresh, if it floats it's ready for the bin. Rubbing vaseline over the shell will increase an egg's shelf life, this seals the egg, very much in the same way as 'blanching' them in water for no more than 20 seconds. An alternative is chucking them into an anchorage, and retrieving the ones which have sunk, once reaching the surface you explain to your neighbor that you have just 'caught' some sea eggs - now watch them all dive in to try and find some of these mythical delights for themselves!
Add extra eggs to a cake mix or if you catch them just before they go off, boil them until hard, leave to cool and then peel the shell off. Mash in a bowl with some mayonnaise or salad cream and season with pepper and you've made yourself an egg mayonnaise sandwich filler!
Un-refrigerated eggs will last between 3-5 weeks out of the fridge. Turn once a week to help stop the yolk from sticking to the shell. If in doubt crack the egg into a bowl or cup before using.
Egg Storage Chart
Raw eggs in shell
3 to 5 weeks
Do not freeze. Instead, beat yolks and whites together; then freeze.
Raw egg whites
2 to 4 days
Raw egg yolks
2 to 4 days
Yolks do not freeze well.
Raw egg accidentally frozen in shell
Use immediately after thawing.
Keep frozen; then
Do not freeze.
Egg substitutes, liquid
Egg substitutes, liquid
Do not freeze.
Egg substitutes, frozen
After thawing, 7 days or refer to “Use-By” date.
Egg substitutes, frozen
After thawing, 3 days or refer to “Use-By” date.
Do not freeze.
Casseroles with eggs
3 to 4 days
After baking, 2 to 3 months.
3 to 5 days
2 to 4 days
Do not freeze.
3 to 4 days
After baking, 1 to 2 months.
3 to 4 days
Do not freeze.
Quiche with filling
3 to 4 days
After baking, 1 to 2 months.
If you've got half a block of cheese left over, grate your cheese into a zip lock bag, makes life easier when wanting to sprinkle it on meals. The harder the cheese the longer it will last. Wrap cheese in kitchen paper or grease proof paper and keep in a cool place. Alternatively, cut cheese into cubes and place in a jar of good quality oil, you can also add spices and garlic to taste.
It is a myth that butter will simply melt in tropical climates. Buy tinned butter, found in most supermarket chilled cabinets. once opened keep in the tin with the lid on in a dark place. It will go soft, but on the whole will survive even the tropics.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
It is more than possible to keep many
vegetables fresh for months, a little
knowledge does go a long way here.
Triage your vegetables on a daily basis,
using up those that are ripe or ripening.
Once you have triaged your fruits and
vegetables, put them in a day box, and use
them. A bakers tray is perfect for
this job, and on a lot of boats will sit
under the companion way steps. Attach
it with some bungey cord to stop it from
moving. Ensure that your fruit and
vegetables don't bounce around or roll, this
will damage them.
Use the coolest darkest part of the boat
you can find. Bilges are a good idea
if kept dry, and it is possible to buy dry
netting to keep perishables from touching
the floor of the bilge, but keep in mind
that should you utilize the bilge, any
ingress of salt or fresh water will spoil
Keep different items separate, ie: don't store carrots with onions, or apples with potatoes (however, adding one apple to a store of potatoes will help stop them from budding0, fresh supplies are not the united nations. Always keep bananas separate from everything else, they will ripen anything around them. Kitchen paper or news paper is good for wrapping more delicate items such as apples, or for preventing things like courgettes from having bruised, nicked skins.
Many people use netting
like hammocks, for short passages this is
ok, however for longer passages, this allows
bruising and premature ripening of
supplies. Bakers trays that allow air
flow are an ideal solution. Line them
with news or kitchen paper before placing
items in them. If storing more than
one type of item in each tray, separate them
with either news or kitchen paper. Try
not to store acidic or strongly
flavored/scented items such as onions with
root vegetables or fruit. Potatoes and
carrots can go in the same tray, as long as
they are separated.
The length of time that
fresh supplies will keep is dependent upon a
few factors; how ripe they were when
purchased, if previously chilled (most
supermarkets chill their fruit and
vegetables), how they are handled, and where
they are stored. Buy unripened
vegetables and fruit, visit vegetable
markets opposed to supermarkets where ever
possible, decline any item that is bruised
or ripe. Ensure that any plastic
wrapping is removed as soon as possible, it
only takes a couple of days for a bag of
potatoes to go off, and it is not a pleasant
Items such as carrots that
have previously been chilled will go limp
and sometimes black on the skin, this does
not mean that they have to be thrown away,
simply peel them and cook in the normal way,
they will look and taste just the same, no
point in wasting what you have paid for.
Cabbage will keep for months, just follow
one simple rule, do not cut through
the cabbage, instead, peel off the
leaves. It might be necessary to cut
the base of the cabbage to allow you to do
this, but that should be the only cut.
Once peeled it can be prepared as
How long will fruits and vegetables
last? Knowing how long certain
products keep will help you determine just
what you provision with.
FRUITS & VEGETABLES STORAGE TIME GUIDE
||This list will give you
a good starting
point for other similar products.
|Potatoes & Sweet Potatoes
||Do not cut
cabbage, peel off the leaves
||Do not store
with other products
||Do not store with
soft will boil/steam ok
||If limp and
or black, simply peel as normal
||cut away any
black bits on florets,
cook as normal
||Do not place in
bag or box out of fridge
|Corn on the cob
||'Old' corn will
become dry and tough, also
||1 Month +
||Still cook well
when skin is crinkled
||Try to ensure that the
skin does not get nicked or
as a substitute
tomatoes destroys their natural
not keep well
enough for single use
newspaper, keep dry and out of
||As above, buy
away from everything else
might get wrinkled
unripe, protect from accidental
|Lemons & Limes
varieties normally last longer
normally last longer
|Peaches & Nectarines
store with care
un-refrigerated, turn once a week
tinned butter. Keep covered
* Tinned butter will normally not melt even in the tropics. Keep the lid on the tin and away from light. Tinned butter can be found in the chilled cabinets in most supermarkets, in either 250 or 500gram weights.
Separate for Safety
Keep fruits and vegetables that will be eaten raw separate from other foods such as raw meat, poultry or seafood — and from galley utensils used for those products. Take these steps to avoid cross-contamination:
Wash cutting boards, dishes, utensils and counter tops with soap and hot water between the preparation of raw meat, poultry and seafood products and the preparation of produce that will not be cooked.
Cut away any damaged or bruised areas on fresh fruits and vegetables before preparing and/or eating. Produce that looks rotten should be discarded.
Wash all produce thoroughly under running water before eating, cutting or cooking. This includes produce grown conventionally or organically, or purchased from a grocery store or farmer's market. Washing fruits and vegetables with soap or detergent or using commercial produce washes is not recommended.
Even if you plan to peel the produce before eating, it is still important to wash it first so dirt and bacteria aren’t transferred from the knife onto the fruit or vegetable.
- To keep potatoes from budding, place an apple in the with the potatoes.
Q&A's Fresh Produce
What is "organic
Organic produce is grown without using most conventional pesticides; fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge; bioengineering; or ionizing radiation.
What is ethylene gas
- and how does it affect produce?
Some fruits and vegetables - like bananas - naturally produce ethylene gas when they ripen. Oftentimes, such fruits and vegetables are harvested in the unripened state to preserve firmness and for long shelf life; they are later exposed to ethylene gas to induce ripening.
What does the
"use-by" date mean on a package of fresh
"Best-If-Used-By- (or Before)" date is the last date recommended for peak quality as determined by the manufacturer of the product.
Why are wax coatings
used on fruits and vegetables?
Many vegetables and fruits make their own natural waxy coating. After harvest, fresh produce may be washed to clean off dirt and soil - but such washing also removes the natural wax. Therefore, waxes are applied to some produce to replace the natural waxes that are lost.
Wax coatings help retain moisture to maintain quality from farm to table including:
when produce is shipped from farm to market
while it is in the stores and restaurants
Waxes also help inhibit mold growth, protect produce from bruising, prevent other physical damage and disease, and enhance appearance.
How are waxes
Waxes are used only in tiny amounts to provide a microscopic coating surrounding the entire product. Each piece of waxed produce has only a drop or two of wax.
For those who enjoy nothing more than a good
piece of steak, running a warm storage galley
might be a bit of a stretch. There are
some very important factors to remember when
attempting to store meat, read about meat
colors here. Taking
sufficient meat for a couple of days, in a
cool box is acceptable, trying to keep it any
longer without proper refrigeration could
cause serious illness. Cured meat
products are another matter. Chorizo, or
other types of spiced cured sausages make
great stews, casseroles and fantastic salads
or sandwiches. They can also be chopped
finely and turned into sauces for spaghetti,
or used in a chilli con carne. Serano or
Iberico ham is expensive, but worth every
cent. Don't buy the pre-packaged sliced
stuff. Try to go for lumps that you can
slice yourself. Keep in a cool dry
place, covered with a clean tea towel.
Fish does not keep. Fresh fish should not
smell, be slimy or strangely colored (unless
smoked!). If your fish has any of these
problems, throw it away immediately, it's not
worth the risk. There is however some
good news. Marinating your fish in
either lemon or lime juice can keep it 'fresh'
overnight. Alternatively buy citric acid
in powder form, and make up a small amount, as
and when needed. The fish can then be
rinsed in fresh water and cooked. Of
course there is nothing nicer than fresh
sushi, or simply carve thin slices of freshly
caught tuna, squeeze lime over it and
enjoy. Be aware that in the tropics
there is ciguatera. Read more on ciguatera
By far one of the easiest foods to keep on
board. If possible keep all your dried
foods in containers, either in or out of the
packet. Don't open too many packets at
once. Should you have an infestation of
little critters it is best to only lose one
packet not your whole store. Keep an eye
on eat by dates, especially with dried beans,
as once they go over the 6 month mark, you
might find that they will almost refuse to
cook. This is not only frustrating for
the cook, and those expecting their dinner,
but will also consume a huge amount of
Dried foods such as flour should not have a
musty smell, if any of your dried foods smell
strange, then throw it out. Any dried
foods that have become damp should also be
discarded. Paper used outside the
plastic bags provides a nesting place for bugs
or spiders. Store only one kind of food
in each individual package to avoid mixing
flavors and possible cross-contamination
should molds or spoilage occur. Another
method for storing dried products is to place
dried food in a food-quality, plastic bag,
then put it in an airtight
Discard moldy food. Don’t take chances on
botulism or a debilitating sickness over a few
cents or dollars. Don’t feed moldy foods to
pets, either! The problem of a few bugs
in dried foods may be solved by spreading the
infested dried food on a cookie pan, placing
in a 300 degree oven for 25-30 minutes.
Bugs and eggs die, and the food is edible
again. Placing a bayleaf in your dried
food products will help to keep bugs away.
TINS AND BOTTLES
Everyone should keep a storage of tins and bottles (hard tack 'emergency' provisions). Not only do they make great emergency pre-cooked food, but have long shelf lives, thus can be left on board a boat that is being stored for months at a time. Tins of beans, which come in all varieties these days make a great addition to any galley. The same goes for bottles, however only store unopened ones, with some condiments, check the use by date.
Don't store food in an opened tin can, or re-use empty cans to cook or store food. When a can has been opened and the food is open to the air, the tin from the can might transfer more quickly to the can's contents.
This advice doesn't apply to foods sold in
cans that have resealable lids, such as golden
syrup and cocoa, because these types of food
don’t react with the can.
Canners can be a great advantage, always read
the manufacturers instructions, but the
possibilities are endless. However if
you’ve never canned food before, it’s critical
that you get a good book on canning and
preserving and use the recipes there, at least
in the beginning. It’s not difficult,
but there are some things you need to know as
you go through the process to keep the food
safe to eat.
- Try to keep food in sealed bags or
Don't store food or drinks near cleaning products or other chemicals (battery acid does not make a good vinaigrette).
Only re-use plastic water bottles if they’re not damaged and you can clean them.
Houses tend to come with large fridges and freezers, tardis like cupboards and a supermarket around the corner. If running a fridge/freezer on passage, then it is likely to be a very small cousin to the one in the house. Frivolities have to be excluded and freezer space allocated to good quality provisions. Take time to sit back and think about what you really need in the freezer, there is a lot that can become warm storage with just a little thought and knowledge. SAFE FOOD STORAGE
Below is a table of some items that either do or do not need to be frozen.
||NO NEED TO
When it comes to freezing meat and fish, unless you are cooking for a large crew, separate your meats and fish into portions. Not only will this utilize freezer space, thus making a more tightly packed and therefore energy efficient freezer, but will allow you to take out what you need on a daily basis.
Ensure that all products are tightly packed and sealed. Water evaporates and you will end up with a clogged up freezer that will need de-frosting, this also makes your freezer energy inefficient.
Check your freezer's temperature, you cannot freeze and re-freeze without first cooking products that have thawed, you risk salmonella, this is not something that you want happening on passage.
Never taste food to determine its safety! You can’t rely on appearance or odor to determine whether food is safe.
Always discard any items in the freezer
that have come into contact with raw meat
If in doubt - throw it out - better safe than sorry!
Have a long term/emergency plan, either in your head or written down. Should you lose power to your freezer for one reason or another, what can you do with all the food? Are you relying on frozen items as a large part of your provisioning needs? If so, you could be in trouble.
Frozen food really can mean that you can cook on board a lot of the same things you cook on land, but when it all goes wrong you will need good quality proteins as back up in your warm storage.
How efficient is your fridge? Though there are may different types, they basically fall into two categories - Engine driven, and Electrical.
An engine driven fridge is quite efficient, it cools your fridge by creating cold plates, think of the blue ice blocks that are used in cold boxes. In simple terms an engine driven fridge 'stores cold'
Electrical fridges (unless you have installed a 110/220 volt appliance), come in either 12 or 24 volts.
What ever type of fridge you run, good insulation is the key. The more insulation you have the better, especially in the tropics.
Is your food safe in the fridge when you have no power? It should be safe as long as power is out no more than 4 hours. Keep the door closed as much as possible. Discard any perishable food (such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and leftovers) that have been above 40 °F for over 2 hours.
Fridge space should be allotted to items that need to be chilled. Many products found in fridges can become warm storage, check what the packaging says. Like freezers, space is at a premium. Items such as shop bought mayonnaise, tomato ketchup, mustard etc... are all warm storage. Having said that use any opened jars/bottles of condiments as soon as possible.
Milk should be kept in the fridge, as should any left-overs. Eggs do not need to be chilled, when purchasing eggs, don't buy them if they are stored in the supermarket's chilled cabinets. Try vegetable markets as they will normally have a stall selling non-chilled eggs. SAFE FOOD STORAGE
(1 day only)
FOIL OR FILM?
Cling film is useful for protecting food but, like many things, it needs to be used correctly.
Not every type of cling film is suitable for
using with all foods. Check the description on the
box to see what foods it can be used with.
Don't use cling film if it could
melt into the food, such as in the oven or on
pots and pans on the hob. You can use
cling film in the microwave (in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions), but make sure
the cling film doesn't touch the food.
Only let cling film touch high-fat foods when
the description on the box says the cling film
is suitable for this. High-fat foods include
some types of cheese, raw meats with a layer of
fat, fried meats, pies and pastries, and cakes
with butter icing or chocolate coatings.
Kitchen foil, which is made from aluminum, can be useful for wrapping and covering foods. But it's best not to use foil or containers made from aluminum to store foods that are highly acidic, such as:
many types of soft fruit
This is because aluminum can affect the taste of these sorts of food, especially if they are stored in aluminum containers for a long time.
The Bad News
Now for the downside of your chosen domicile. As
said at the beginning there are four enemies of
food storage: light, heat, oxygen, and
moisture. So your job is to reduce these
risks as much as possible, wherever
The easiest one to deal with is light. Eliminate the light issue all together. Make sure your food storage areas are not out in the open (netting hung from the back of the boat is ok for day to day fruit etc... but not for any longer). Avoid putting your food near a lamp or window, and throw a blanket over it if that is not possible.
You can eliminate two threats in one by dehydrating your food, and then vacuum sealing it. The dehydration obviously takes care of most of the moisture, and the vacuum sucks all the air out of it. Invest in a good food grade system to process your food this way. Saving a little to buy a cheap vacuum sealer will hurt you in the long run if the quality is poor, since your food will be more likely to spoil and you would have lost your investment in the food.
This works best for fruits and vegetables. You
can vacuum seal beans, rice, and just about any
other food too, though there may be better
solutions for those types of foods. The downside
of this method is that food does lose some of its
nutritional value from dehydration, so you will
not want to use this method exclusively.
TIPS FOR DRYING OUT FOOD
Freezer zip-lock bags are excellent for
packaging dried foods. Force excess air
from bags as they are sealed. Procure
heavy-duty, food-grade, storage-quality,
sealable plastic bags. Store dried food
products in a cool, dry location out of direct
sunlight. Use a craft paper inside larger
plastic bags to shield dried foods from
Traditional canning in mason jars is probably one of the best known food preservation techniques, and one that has been used successfully for a very long time. Pressure canners allow you to can a wider variety of food than traditional water bath canning, since it seals the food at a higher temperature. Of course, this has the same problem as dehydration, since some of the vitamins are destroyed through the process.
There is another option for canning goods that does not have this problem, though it takes a little more forethought and planning. This method works especially well for grains and beans which you don’t want to cook ahead of time, and can preserve food for up to 30 years. You may want to use glass jars that you have saved from foods you eat every day. Once you have your containers, you will also need O2 absorbers.
Put the food in the jar, add O2 absorbers, and
The most obvious way to get rid of heat is to freeze your food stores. You will not need to remove the air, though it may still be helpful to vacuum seal food in order to prevent freezer burn. Light and moisture are non-issues as well. Vacuum sealing food also saves on space, which may be at a premium. Freezers should be used for high value/protein foods, as fruit and vegetables will keep for long periods.
Despite all its benefits, freezing foods has
several major drawbacks. First and foremost,
power, if you have more amps than you know what to
do with, and a reliable freezer, then go for
it. If not, then knowing about warm storage
is the way to go. Imagine if your freezer
breaks down mid passage, do you really want to
have to survive on rice and toothpaste?!
Of all the elements that damage food, heat tends to be the least of the evils. So as long as you are able to minimize oxygen, moisture, and light affecting your food storage, even in higher heat, you should be able to successfully store food for 3-5 years at least.
That being said, there are lots of things that you can do to keep your food cool even in a hot climate.
Find the coolest part of the boat. This
could be the bilge, but be aware, should your
bilge fill with water (either fresh or salt), then
anything that isn't canned or tinned will be
Ensure good air circulation and put in fans to
cool the air of the space, computer fans are cheap
and power efficient.
Keep any lights off in the area unless they are absolutely needed.
No matter where you sail, it is important to
store food, and to store it in a way that you
won’t lose your investment through mold, rot,
botulism, or oxidation. Even if you start small
with one glass jar and a few oxygen absorbers, or
by purchasing a few extra canned goods, start
somewhere so you will be that much closer to being
ready no matter what the future holds!
Safe Food Storage
Food that goes in the fridge
Some food needs to be kept in the fridge to help
stop bacteria from growing on it, such as food
with a 'use by' date, cooked food and ready-to-eat
food such as desserts and cooked meats.
How cold is your fridge?
You need to make sure your fridge is cold enough
otherwise food poisoning bacteria will still be
able to grow. Your fridge should be between 0ºC
and 5ºC. If your fridge is not equipped with
a thermometer then think about buying one.
Keep the fridge door closed as much as
Wait for food to cool down before you put it in the fridge.
When the label says 'keep refrigerated', make
sure you do keep the food in the fridge. If the
food isn't labelled with any storage
instructions and it's a type of food that goes
off quickly, you should put it in the fridge and
eat it within two days.
Some jars and bottles need to be kept in the fridge once they’ve been opened.
If you have made some food (such as a sandwich or a cold dish) and you're not going to eat it straight away, keep it in the fridge until you're ready to eat it.
If you're having a party or making a buffet, leave the food in the fridge until people are ready to eat. Generally, you shouldn't leave food out of the fridge for more than four hours
Cool leftovers as quickly as possible (ideally within one to two hours) and then store them in the fridge. Eat any leftovers within two days, except for cooked rice, which you should eat within one day to help avoid food poisoning.
It's especially important to store meat safely to stop bacteria from spreading and to avoid food poisoning. You should:
Store raw meat and poultry in clean, sealed containers on the bottom shelf of the fridge, so they can't touch or drip onto other food.
When you have cooked meat and you're not going to eat it straight away, cool it as quickly as possible and then put it in the fridge or freezer. Remember to keep cooked meat separate from raw meat.
Keeping food in the freezer
The freezer can be a great tool. If you
have the power to run one, then why not. If
you don't have the room for both a fridge and a
freezer, then making ice, and placing into a cool
box to create a day fridge is a good idea.
You can keep food safely in the freezer for years, in theory, as long as it has stayed frozen the whole time. However, the taste and texture of food changes if it’s frozen for too long, so you might well find that it’s not very nice to eat.
For safety, it's OK to freeze most raw or cooked
foods providing you do the following things:
Freeze it before the 'use by' date.
Follow any freezing or thawing instructions on the label.
When frozen meat and fish (and some other foods) thaw, lots of liquid can come out of them. If you’re defrosting raw meat or fish, this liquid will spread bacteria to any food, plates or surfaces that it touches. Keep the meat and fish in a sealed container at the bottom of the fridge, so that it can't touch or drip onto other foods.Always clean plates, utensils, surfaces and hands thoroughly, after they have touched raw or thawing meat, to stop bacteria from spreading.
If you defrost raw meat or fish and then cook it thoroughly, you can freeze it again, but remember never reheat foods more than once.
Ultimate Passage Meal
Now for the salad that was promised earlier -
fresh coleslaw and finely sliced courgette.
This fish dish should be considered the ultimate
warm storage, deep ocean meal.
SEARED FISH, NEW POTATOES & FRESH COLESLAW
ONE FRESHLY CAUGHT FISH (whatever type you've
ASPARAGUS (if you've still got some)
COURGETTE (thinly sliced - mimics cucumber)
Apart from the fish, all the other ingredients
are most certainly warm storage.
Remove a few cabbage leaves, do not cut into your cabbage. Roll tightly into a cigar shape and slice very thinly. Shake them out and place in a large bowl. Using a cheese grater (large grating holes) - grate apple, carrot and onion onto the cabbage, add salt, pepper and garlic to taste. Spoon over sufficient mayonnaise and mix together. As the apple is immediately covered in mayonnaise it will not oxidise and go brown - put to one side (don't make your coleslaw too early on as it will weep and start to oxidize and go limp).
Steam or boil your new potatoes, best method here
is a pressure cooker, fresh asparagus can be
placed ontop of the potatoes and will gently
(If you are working with only one ring, cook the potatoes until slightly al dente, leave the lid on and put to one side, the remaining heat will finish the cooking for you.)
CRISPY SKINNED FISH
1. Dry Out
Starting with parched skin is the key to a pro result—try to cook wet fish and it’s going to steam, stick, rip, and generally be a huge, frustrating mess.
2. Start Smoking
Get a large stainless-steel skillet ripping hot over high heat (2 minutes should do it), then pour in 1 Tbsp. oil and add a big pinch of salt. Once the oil is smoking, take the skillet off the heat and use a handful of paper towels to wipe oil and salt around and out of the pan (be extra careful—you might want to use tongs to hold the towels).
3. Give ’Em Some Skin
Put your now-seasoned skillet back over high heat. Add another 1 Tbsp. oil to the pan and hit both sides of each fillet with a decent amount of salt. Once the oil is shimmering, carefully lay a fillet skin side down in the pan.
4. Be Firm
Use a fish spatula to apply firm, even pressure to the fillet until it relaxes and lies flat. Repeat with remaining fillet, then keep at it! Periodically press down each fillet and cook until flesh is nearly opaque and cooked through, with just a small raw area on top.
5. Flip and Rest
Slide your fish spatula under each fillet and—using your other hand as a guide—turn it away from you (watch that oil). Remove the pan from heat. At this point you’re just letting the raw side kiss the skillet to finish cooking, about 1 minute.
If you've got steaks and not
fillets, then be a bit more gentle, but you've got
Serve the fish with the freshly
made coleslaw and thinly sliced courgette.
Throw a bit of butter over the new potatoes and
add a slice of lemon or lime, what could be
FISH WITH CREAM SAUCE
For a slight variation, cook the
fish, potatoes and one type of vegetable (carrot
is great with this). When the fish is
cooked, transfer to plates and quickly deglaze
your pan with a little white wine. (buy
small cartons (33ml), of wine - great for cooking
with). Now throw in a small carton of UHT
cream, and a small amount of dried parsley (if you
happen to have a parsley plant then use
fresh). Turn off the heat and stir.
Serve immediately. This is a guaranteed
FISH WITH BUTTER AND LEMON
Cook the fish and vegetables as above. Take the fish out of pan and turn off the heat, pour in a small amount of olive oil, and put in a small amount of butter. Squeeze half a lemon or lime (or use bottled or pre-made lemon juice) into the pan and stir, drizzle over the dish and serve. This is great on a hot sunny day.