Pressure Cookers

pressure cooker

TABLES FOR PRESSURE COOKING TIMES

JUMP TO: VEGETABLES / BEANS / MEAT AND POULTRY/ Pressure Cooker Recipes


Hopefully your pressure cooker is slightly newer than the one above.  However, no matter what type of pressure cooker you have or intend to buy, one thing is for certain, they save time and gas.  On a rough passage having a large pot with a sealable lid is also of great importance, it doesn't matter how rough it gets, the lid stays on.

EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW

One of the most common reasons that boat owners buy pressure cookers is that they save time, thus save gas.  On any passage, ensuring that you have sufficient gas is a must, this becomes more important the further afield you sail.  Some foods also taste better pressure cooked, then there is also the time saved toiling over a hot stove.
pressure cooker

Pressure cooking saves water - the amount of liquid desired plus 1/2 cup is required as there is very little evaporation.  With an ordinary saucepan, no matter how long you boil your water for, it's still boiling water. In a pressure cooker boiling water is covered and the steam is captured inside, thus it is possible to raise the temperature above 212° F. The pressure regulator on the cooker controls and maintains the amount of steam buildup at 13 to 15 pounds of pressure depending on the brand of pressure cooker, this can raise it to 250° F.  As a result, food is cooked in about a third of the time that is needed in a conventional pan. Pressure is created initially by boiling a liquid such as water or broth inside the closed pressure cooker. The trapped steam increases the internal pressure and temperature. After use, the pressure is slowly released so that the vessel can be safely opened.

TIPS:

It is possible to cook dry beans, but first Fill the cooker a maximum of half full before beginning to cook. Dried foods froth and foam so much that the pressure regulator/vent pipe can become clogged if the cooker is filled more than half way. Pressure cookers must have a minimum of 1/2 cup of liquid in order to operate correctly. Beans, soaked or unsoaked, normally will require much more than 1/2 cup of liquid to cover the beans. Allowing the cooker to boil dry will damage the cooker.

Tests have shown that when oil and salt are added to the traditional cold soak water, dry beans keep their shape and exterior skin intact, and froth and foam less during the pressure-cooking. Try adding 1–4 tablespoons of oil and up to 1 tablespoon of salt to one pound, 2 cups, of beans during the soaking or cooking period.

Allow the pressure to drop. This can add up to 20 minutes of cooking and finishes the process.  Most pressure cookers have an automatic locking device that prevents opening once the pressure begins to build. Pressure cookers also have a secondary relief device(s) that automatically release pressure in case the vent pipe becomes clogged and pressure cannot be released normally. Not all pressure cookers are the same, read the manual!

Pre-frying ingredients

The flavor of some foods, such as meat and onions, can be improved by gently cooking with a little pre-heated cooking oil, butter or other fat in the open pressure cooker over medium heat (unless the manufacturer advises against this) before pressure cooking. It is important both not to overheat the empty pressure cooker and never to heat the empty cooker with the lid and gasket in place. Overheating can cause warping and other damage. The pressure cooker needs to cool briefly before adding liquid;  otherwise some of the liquid will evaporate instantly, possibly leaving insufficient liquid for the entire pressure cooking time; if deglazing the pan, this has to be taken into account.

Is it possible to place food containers in a pressure cooker?

Small containers such as plastic pudding containers, can be used in a pressure cooker, provided that the containers (and any covering used) can withstand temperatures of 130 °C (266 °F) and are not placed directly on the interior base. The containers can be used for cooking foods that are prone to burning on the base of the pressure cooker. A lid for the container may be used, provided that the lid allows some steam to come into contact with the food and the lid is securely fitted; an example is foil or greaseproof paper, pleated in the center and tied securely with string. Containers that are cracked or have otherwise sustained damage are not suitable. Cooking time is longer when using covered containers because the food is not in direct contact with the steam. Since non-metal containers are poorer heat conductors, the type of container material stated in the recipe cannot be substituted without affecting the outcome. For example, if the recipe time is calculated using a stainless steel container and a plastic container is used instead, the food at the bottom of the container may be under-cooked, unless the cooking time is increased. Containers with thicker sides, e.g., oven-proof glass or ceramic containers, which are slower to conduct heat, will add about 10 minutes to the cooking time. Liquid can be added inside the container when pressure cooking foods such as rice, which need to absorb liquid in order to cook properly.


Canning


Large pressure cookers are often called pressure canners in the United States because of their capacity to hold jars used in canning. Pressure canners are specifically designed for home canning, whereas ordinary pressure cookers are not recommended for canning due to the risk of botulism poisoning, because pressure canners hold heat and pressure for much longer than ordinary pressure cookers and these factors are a critical part of the total processing time required to destroy harmful microbes. oxygen content. This is a normal change during refrigerator storage.


Parts

pressure cooker parts
          practical boat cook every for the galley cook

If you've ever wondered what all those bits and pieces were that you have flying around your cupboards here are the answers.

Portable pressure cookers consist of all or most of these basic component parts, depending on the manufacturer and model of pressure cooker:

Pan

  • Metal pan body
  • Pan handles, usually one each on opposite ends, for carrying the cooker with both hands

Lid

  • Lid handle, usually with a locking device button or slider which "clicks" shut and prevents removal while cooking
  • Gasket (also known as a "sealing ring") which seals the cooker airtight
  • Steam vent with a pressure regulator on top (either a weight or spring device) which maintains the pressure level in the pan
  • Pressure indicator pin, for showing the presence or absence of any pressure, however slight
  • Safety devices on the lid (typically over-pressure and/or over-temperature pressure release valves)
  • Pressure gauge (usually absent but included on some costlier models)

Accessories

  • Steamer basket
  • Trivet for keeping the steamer basket above liquid
  • Metal divider, for separating different foods in the steamer basket e.g. vegetables

Pressure cookers are typically made of aluminum (aluminum) or stainless steel. Aluminum pressure cookers may be stamped, polished, or anodized, but all are unsuitable for the dishwasher. They are cheaper, but the aluminum is reactive to acidic foods, whose flavors are changed in the reactions, and less durable than stainless steel pressure cookers.

Higher-quality stainless steel pressure cookers are made with heavy, three-layer, or copper-clad bottoms (heat spreader) for uniform heating because stainless steel has lower thermal conductivity. Most modern stainless steel cookers are dishwasher safe, although some manufacturers may recommend washing by hand. Some pressure cookers have a non-stick interior.

A gasket or sealing ring, made from either rubber or silicone, forms a gas-tight seal that does not allow air or steam to escape between the lid and pan. Normally, the only way steam can escape is through a regulator on the lid while the cooker is pressurized. If the regulator becomes blocked, a safety valve provides a backup escape route for steam.

To seal the gasket there are several main methods used. Each determines the design of the pressure cooker:

  • The twist-on design has slots on the lid engaging with flanges on the body, similar to a lid on a glass jar, that works by placing the lid on the pot and twisting it about 30° to lock it in place. A common modern design, it has easily implemented locking features that prevent the removal of the lid while under pressure.
  • The center screw design has a bar that is slotted in place over the lid and a screw tightened downward to hold the lid on. Though an older design, it is still produced due to its ease of construction and simplicity.
  • The bolt-down design has flanges on both its lid and its body for bolts to be passed through, and usually uses wingnuts that hinge on the body and so are never fully removed from the cooker; this sealing design is typically used for larger units such as canning retorts and autoclaves. It is very simple to produce, and it can seal with simple and inexpensive gaskets.
  • The internally fitted lid design employs an oval lid that is placed inside and presses outward; the user inserts the lid at an angle, then turns the lid to align it with the pot opening on top because the lid is larger than the opening. A spring arrangement holds the lid in place until the pressure forms and holds the lid tightly against the body, preventing removal until the pressure is released.

Because of the forces that pressure cookers must withstand, they are usually heavier than conventional pots of similar size.

  • Metal pan body
  • Pan handles, usually one each on opposite ends, for carrying the cooker with both hands

Lid

  • Lid handle, usually with a locking device button or slider which "clicks" shut and prevents removal while cooking
  • Gasket (also known as a "sealing ring") which seals the cooker airtight
  • Steam vent with a pressure regulator on top (either a weight or spring device) which maintains the pressure level in the pan
  • Pressure indicator pin, for showing the presence or absence of any pressure, however slight
  • Safety devices on the lid (typically over-pressure and/or over-temperature pressure release valves)
  • Pressure gauge (usually absent but included on some costlier models)

Accessories

  • Steamer basket
  • Trivet for keeping the steamer basket above liquid
  • Metal divider, for separating different foods in the steamer basket e.g. vegetables

Pressure cookers are typically made of aluminum (aluminum) or stainless steel. Aluminum pressure cookers may be stamped, polished, or anodized, but all are unsuitable for the dishwasher. They are cheaper, but the aluminum is reactive to acidic foods, whose flavors are changed in the reactions, and less durable than stainless steel pressure cookers.

Higher-quality stainless steel pressure cookers are made with heavy, three-layer, or copper-clad bottoms (heat spreader) for uniform heating because stainless steel has lower thermal conductivity. Most modern stainless steel cookers are dishwasher safe, although some manufacturers may recommend washing by hand. Some pressure cookers have a non-stick interior.

A gasket or sealing ring, made from either rubber or silicone, forms a gas-tight seal that does not allow air or steam to escape between the lid and pan. Normally, the only way steam can escape is through a regulator on the lid while the cooker is pressurized. If the regulator becomes blocked, a safety valve provides a backup escape route for steam.

To seal the gasket there are several main methods used. Each determines the design of the pressure cooker:

  • The twist-on design has slots on the lid engaging with flanges on the body, similar to a lid on a glass jar, that works by placing the lid on the pot and twisting it about 30° to lock it in place. A common modern design, it has easily implemented locking features that prevent the removal of the lid while under pressure.
  • The center screw design has a bar that is slotted in place over the lid and a screw tightened downward to hold the lid on. Though an older design, it is still produced due to its ease of construction and simplicity.
  • The bolt-down design has flanges on both its lid and its body for bolts to be passed through, and usually uses wingnuts that hinge on the body and so are never fully removed from the cooker; this sealing design is typically used for larger units such as canning retorts and autoclaves. It is very simple to produce, and it can seal with simple and inexpensive gaskets.
  • The internally fitted lid design employs an oval lid that is placed inside and presses outward; the user inserts the lid at an angle, then turns the lid to align it with the pot opening on top because the lid is larger than the opening. A spring arrangement holds the lid in place until the pressure forms and holds the lid tightly against the body, preventing removal until the pressure is released.

Because of the forces that pressure cookers must withstand, they are usually heavier than conventional pots of similar size.



PRESSURE COOKING TIMES


BEANS




Beans (minutes)

Adzuki 8


Black beans
12


Black Eyes Peas
10


Fava
13


Butter Beans
13

Chick Pes
17

Flageolet 12


Haricot
12


Kidney 11


Lentils 4


Lima 6


Mung
4


Peas 5


Soy
15



NOTE: THESE TIMES ARE APPROXIMATE AND THAT INDIVIDUAL PRESSURE COOKERS WILL VARY


VEGETABLES





VEGETABLE


MINUTES


LEVEL
Artichoke, large whole, without leaves 9 to 11
High
Artichoke, medium whole, without leaves 6 to 8
High
Artichoke, small whole, without leaves 4 to 5
High
Artichoke, hearts 2 to 3
High
Asparagus, fine, whole 1 to 1 1/2
High
Asparagus, thick, whole 1 to 2
High
Beans, green, whole (fresh or frozen) 2 to 3
High
Beets, 1/4" (5 mm) slices 5 to 6
High
Beet greens 1
High
Beans, yellow, whole (fresh or frozen) 2 to 3
High

Broccoli, flowers 2
High
Broccoli, stalks 5 to 6
High
Broccoli, stalks, 1/4" (5 mm) slices 3 to 4
High
Brussel sprouts, whole 4
High
Cabbage, red or green, in quarters 3 to 4
High
Cabbage, red or green, 1/4" (5 mm) slices 1
High
Carrots, 1/4" (5 mm) slices 1
High
Carrots, 1" (25 mm) chunks 4
High
Cauliflower flowers 2 to 3
High
Celery, 1" (25 mm) chunks 3
High
Collard 5
High
Corn, kernels 1
High
Corn on the cob 3
High
Eggplant, 1/4" (5 mm) slices 3
High
Eggplant, 1/2" (10 mm) chunks 3
High
Endive, thickly cut 1 to 2
High
Escarole, coarsely chopped 1 to 2
High
Green beans, whole (fresh or frozen) 2 to 3
High

Kale, coarsely chopped 2
High
Leeks (white part) 2 to 4
High
Mixed vegetables, frozen 2 to 3
High
Okra, small pods 2 to 3
High
Onions, medium whole 2 to 3
High
Parsnips, 1/4" (5 mm) slices 1
High
Parsnips, 1" (25 mm) slices 2 to 4
High
Peas, in the pod 1
High
Peas, green 1
High
Potatoes, cut into 1" (25 mm) cubes 5 to 7
High
Potatoes, new, whole small 5 to 7
High
Potatoes, whole large 10 to 12
High
Pumpkin, 2" (50 mm) slices 3 to 4
High
Red beet, in 1/4" (5 mm) slices 4
High
Red beet, large, whole 20
High
Red beet, small, whole 12
High
Rutabaga, 1/2" (10 mm) slices 4
High
Rutabaga, 1" (25 mm) chunks 5
High




Spinach, fresh 1
Low
Spinach, frozen 4
High
Squash, acorn, halved 7
High
Squash, butternut, 1" (25 mm) slices 4
High
Sweet potato, 1 1/2" (40 mm) slices 5
High
Swede, 1" (25 mm) slices 7
High
Swiss chard 2
High
Tomatoes, in quarters 2
High
Tomatoes, whole 3
High
Turnip, small, in quarters 3
High
Turnip, in 1 1/2" (40 mm) slices 3
High
Yellow beans, whole (fresh or frozen) 2 to 3
High
Zucchini, 1/4" (5 mm) slices 2
High

NOTE: THESE TIMES ARE APPROXIMATE AND THAT INDIVIDUAL PRESSURE COOKERS WILL VARY



MEAT AND POULTRY


MEAT
MINUTES
LEVEL

Beef, 1" (25 mm) cubes, 1 1/2 lb (700 g) 10 to 15 High
Beef, dressed, 2 lb (900 g) 10 to 15 High
Beef, frozen not advisable -
Beef, heart, 3 to 4 lb (1.4 to 1.8 kg) 50 to 75 High
Beef, kidney 8 to 10 High
Beef, liver 5 High
Beef, meatballs, 1 to 2 lb (450 to 900 g) 4 to 9 High
Beef, meatloaf, 2 lb (900 g) 10 to 15 High
Beef, oxtail 40 to 45 High
Beef, pot roast, rump, round, chuck, blade or brisket, 1 1/2 lb to 2 lb (700 to 900 g) 35 to 40 High
Beef, ribs, short, grilling 15 High
Beef, ribs, short, stewing 20 High
Beef, shanks, 1 1/2" (40 mm) wide 25 to 30 High
Beef, steak, rump, round, chuck or blade, 1 to 2" (25 to 50 mm) 20 to 25 High
Beef, stew meat, 1 1/2" (40 mm) cubes 15 High
Chicken, breasts, with bone in, 2 to 3 lb (900 to 1400 g) 8 to 10 High
Chicken, cubes 5
High
Chicken, drumsticks (legs) or thighs 5 to 7 
High
Chicken, ground
High
Chicken, frozen, breasts or thighs, boneless 7 to 10 High
Chicken, liver
High
Chicken, strips, boneless 5 to 6 
High
Chicken, whole, 2 to 3 lb (900 to 1400 g) 12 to 18 High
Chicken, whole, 3 to 4 lb (1.4 to 1.8 kg) 18 to 25 High
Chicken, whole, frozen not advisable -
Cornish Hen, whole 8 to 10 High
Duck, pieces 8 to 10 High
Duck, whole 3 to 4 lb (1.4 to 1.8 kg) 25 to 30 High
Lamb, 1" (25 mm) cubes, 1 1/2 lb (700 g) 10 to 18 High
Lamb, chops, 1" (25 mm) thick 10 
High
Lamb, leg 35 to 40 High
Lamb, stew meat 12 to 15 High
Pheasant 15 to 20 High
Pork, frozen not advisable -
Pork, ham shank, 2 lb (900 g) 20 to 25 High
Pork, ham, pieces 20 to 25 High
Pork, hocks, smoked (cover completely w/liquid) 40 to 50 High
Pork, ribs, 2 lb (900 g) 15 High
Pork, roast 40 to 45 High
Turkey, breast, boneless 20 High
Turkey, breast, whole, with bone in 20 to 30 High
Turkey, drumsticks (leg) 12 High